The **molecularity** of a reaction refers to the number of molecules or particles that are involved in the rate-determining step of the reaction.

In an **elementary reaction**, the reaction occurs in a single step, and its molecularity is determined by the number of reactant molecules that are involved in this step.

In the case of [tex]Cl2[/tex] falling apart, the reaction can be represented as:

[tex]Cl2 → 2Cl[/tex]

Since this reaction involves only one[tex]Cl2[/tex] molecule in the rate-determining step, the molecularity of the reaction is unimolecular, or simply "1". This means that the **reaction rate** is dependent only on the concentration of [tex]Cl2[/tex], and no other species are involved in the **rate-determining **step.

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At constant temperature and pressure, a system is most likely to undergo a reaction so that in its final state, as compared to its initial state, the system has:

A) lower energy and higher entropy

B) lower energy and lower entropy

C) higher energy and lower entropy

D) higher energy and higher entropy

In general, a system tends to favor a reaction that results in an increase in **entropy**, which is a measure of the number of possible arrangements of the system's particles. The answer is A) lower energy and higher entropy.

This is due to the fact that the increase in the number of particles in the **system** or the increase in the number of ways the particles can be arranged leads to an increase in entropy. On the other hand, a system also tends to favor a reaction that results in a decrease in energy, which is a measure of the system's ability to do work.

Therefore, when a system **undergoes** a reaction that decreases its energy while increasing its entropy, it is moving towards a more stable and disordered state.

This is because a lower energy state means that the system is releasing energy, while a higher entropy state means that the system is becoming more disordered and spread out. This tendency towards lower energy and higher entropy is known as the second law of** thermodynamics**, which governs the behavior of all physical systems.

The answer is A) lower energy and higher entropy.

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Sodium can be determined by flame emission spectrometry with a lithium internal standard. the emission intensities of standard solutions of nacl and an unknown containing a constant amount of licl were measured. all the intensities were corrected for background by subtracting the intensity of a blank.

ck, ppm intensity of k emission intensity of li emission

1 10 10

2 15.3 7.5

5 34.7 6.8

7.5 65.2 8.5

10 95.8 10

20 110.2 5.8

unknown 47.3 9.1

required:

a. plot the k emission intensity vs. the concentration of k, and determine the linearity from the regression statistics.

b. plot the ratio of the k intensity to the li intensity vs. the concentration of k, and compare the resulting linearity to that in part (a). why does the internal standard improve linearity?

c. calculate the concentration of k in the unknown.

a. To plot the k **emission intensity** vs. the concentration of k, we can use the given data for the standard solutions of NaCl.

The concentration of K can be expressed in parts per million (ppm) and the corresponding intensity values can be plotted on a graph. Using regression analysis, we can determine the linearity of the data. The resulting graph should show a linear relationship between concentration and **intensity**.

b. To plot the ratio of the k intensity to the li intensity vs. the concentration of k, we can divide the intensity of K by the intensity of Li for each** standard solution** and the unknown.

The resulting values can be plotted against the concentration of K. The linearity of this graph can also be determined using regression analysis. The internal standard improves linearity because it helps to correct for any variations in sample handling and instrument response, resulting in more accurate and precise measurements.

c. To calculate the concentration of K in the unknown, we can use the **ratio of the intensity **of K to Li and the calibration curve obtained from the standard solutions.

From the graph in part (b), we can determine the concentration of K in the unknown by finding its corresponding value on the x-axis. Alternatively, we can use the regression equation obtained from part (a) to calculate the concentration of K in the unknown based on its** measured intensity.**

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Which type of feature forms suddenly where intense compression deforms the rock in an area?

A. A series of rock layers cut by a normal fault

B. A depression that forms a lake

C. A mountain made of volcanic rock

D. A mountain range with folded layers of rock

D. A **mountain** range with folded layers of rock.

Intense **compression** can cause the rock layers to fold, creating a mountain range. This type of feature forms suddenly in the geological timescale, as a result of tectonic activity, and is known as a fold mountain.

The intense **pressure** causes the rock layers to buckle and deform, resulting in folds, faults, and other features. The Appalachian Mountains and the Rocky Mountains are examples of fold mountains in the United States.

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16. Lab Analysis: You forgot to label your chemicals and do not know whether your unknown solution is strontium nitrate or magnesium nitrate. You use the solutions potassium carbonate and potassium sulfate in order to determine your mistake. unknown + potassium carbonate & unknown + potassium sulfate . Justify your unknown solution in complete sentences, using your observations and the solubility rules as evidence in your explanation.

Based on the lab analysis, we used **potassium** carbonate and potassium sulfate to determine whether our unknown solution was strontium nitrate or magnesium nitrate.

When we mixed the unknown solution with potassium carbonate, we observed a white precipitate forming, indicating that the unknown solution contained a **carbonate** ion. When we mixed the unknown solution with potassium sulfate, we observed no change, indicating that the unknown solution did not contain a sulfate ion.

Using the solubility rules, we know that strontium carbonate is insoluble, while magnesium carbonate is soluble. Therefore, since we observed a white precipitate forming, we can conclude that our unknown solution was strontium nitrate.

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For photosynthesis to occur, 2801 kJ/mole of energy is required. Add the ΔH to the correct side of the equation below:

6 CO2 (g) + H2O (l) → C6H12O6 (aq) + 6 O2 (g)

The **correct presentation **is;

6 CO2 (g) + H2O (l) → C6H12O6 (aq) + 6 O2 (g) ΔH = 801 kJ/mole

What is the energy that is required?A chemical reaction known as an **endothermic **reaction draws energy from its surroundings, causing the temperature of those surroundings to drop. This indicates that energy must be added to the system in order for the reaction to take place because the reactants of the reaction have a lower enthalpy (energy content) than the products.

Because the **absorbed **energy during an endothermic reaction is typically in the form of heat, the reaction feels cold to the touch.

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A student made the claim that a 4 gram paintball fired from a paintball gun at 90 m/s could have about the same kinetic energy as a 1 gram bb pellet fired from a bb gun at 180 m/s do you agree or disagree with the student's claim?

I agree with the student's claim that a 4-gram paintball fired from a paintball gun at 90 m/s could have about the same **kinetic energy** as a 1-gram bb pellet fired from a bb gun at 180 m/s.

To answer this question, we need to compare the kinetic energy of the **paintball** and the bb pellet. The formula for kinetic energy is 1/2mv^2, where m is the mass of the object and v is its velocity.

For the paintball, with a mass of 4** grams** and a velocity of 90 m/s, the kinetic energy is:

1/2 * 0.004 kg * (90 m/s)^2 = 18.18 joules

For the bb pellet, with a mass of 1 gram and a velocity of 180 m/s, the** kinetic energy** is:

1/2 * 0.001 kg * (180 m/s)^2 = 16.2 joules

So, the student's claim is actually true - the 4-gram paintball fired at 90 m/s has slightly more kinetic energy than the 1-gram bb pellet fired at 180 m/s. However, it's worth noting that the two projectiles have different sizes and shapes, and would behave differently upon impact.

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What is the ph of a solution prepared by mixing 30.00 ml of 0.10 m ch3co2h with 30.00 ml of 0.030 m ch3co2k? assume that the volume of the solutions are additive and that ka = 1.8 x 10–5 for ch3co2h.

The **pH** of the solution prepared by mixing 30.00 ml of 0.10 M CH3CO2H with 30.00 ml of 0.030 M CH3CO2K is 4.22.

To determine the pH of the solution prepared by mixing 30.00 ml of 0.10 M CH3CO2H with 30.00 ml of 0.030 M CH3CO2K, we first need to calculate the **concentration** of CH3CO2H and CH3CO2K in the final solution.

Since the **volumes** are additive, the total volume of the solution is 60.00 ml. The moles of CH3CO2H present in the solution can be calculated as follows:

Moles of CH3CO2H = concentration (M) x volume (L)

Moles of CH3CO2H = 0.10 M x 0.030 L

Moles of CH3CO2H = 0.003 moles

Similarly, the **moles** of CH3CO2K present in the solution can be calculated as:

Moles of CH3CO2K = concentration (M) x volume (L)

Moles of CH3CO2K = 0.030 M x 0.030 L

Moles of CH3CO2K = 0.0009 moles

Since CH3CO2H and CH3CO2K react with each other to form a **buffer solution**, we can use the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to calculate the pH of the solution:

pH = pKa + log ([CH3CO2K] / [CH3CO2H])

where pKa is the **dissociation** constant of CH3CO2H (1.8 x 10–5).**Substituting** the values of moles of CH3CO2H and CH3CO2K, we get:

pH = pKa + log ([0.0009] / [0.003])

pH = 4.74 + log (0.3)

pH = 4.74 - 0.52

pH = 4.22

Therefore, the pH of the solution prepared by mixing 30.00 ml of 0.10 M CH3CO2H with 30.00 ml of 0.030 M CH3CO2K is 4.22.

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Determine the mass of ammonium chloride, NH4Cl, required to prepare 0. 250 L of a 0. 35 M solution of ammonium chloride.

We need 4.68 g of **ammonium chloride** (NH₄Cl) to prepare 0.250 L of a 0.35 M solution.

To determine the mass of ammonium chloride (NH₄Cl) required to prepare a 0.250 L (liters) of a 0.35 M (molar) solution, follow these steps:

1. Recall the formula for** molarity**: M = moles of solute / volume of solution in liters.

2. Rearrange the formula to solve for moles of solute: moles of solute = M x volume of solution in liters.

3. Calculate the **moles** of NH₄Cl needed: moles of NH₄Cl = 0.35 M x 0.250 L = 0.0875 moles.

4. Determine the** molar mass **of NH₄Cl by adding the molar masses of its constituent elements: (N = 14.01 g/mol, H = 1.01 g/mol, Cl = 35.45 g/mol): 14.01 + (4 x 1.01) + 35.45 = 53.49 g/mol.

5. Calculate the **mass **of NH₄Cl required: mass = moles x molar mass = 0.0875 moles x 53.49 g/mol = 4.680125 g.

So, you need 4.68 g of ammonium chloride (NH₄Cl) to prepare 0.250 L of a 0.35 M solution.

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calculate the molarity of 102.6 grams of sugar, C12H22O11 in 500. mL of solution

The **molarity** of the **sugar** solution is 0.5988 M (mol/L).

To calculate the molarity of a solution, we need to know the number of moles of solute (the substance being dissolved) and the volume of the solution in liters.

First, we need to determine the number of **moles** of sugar (C12H22O11) in the given mass of 102.6 grams:

The **molar mass** of C12H22O11 can be calculated as follows:

12(12.01 g/mol) + 22(1.01 g/mol) + 11(16.00 g/mol) = 342.3 g/mol

The number of **moles** of C12H22O11 in 102.6 grams can be calculated as:

102.6 g / 342.3 g/mol = 0.2994 mol

Next, we need to convert the volume of the solution from milliliters to liters:

mL = 0.5 L

Now we can calculate the **molarity** (M) of the solution:

M = moles of solute/liters of solution

M = 0.2994 mol / 0.5 L

M = 0.5988 M

Therefore, the **molarity** of the **sugar** solution is 0.5988 M (mol/L).

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A solution contains 1.49×10-2 M potassium chromate and 1.04×10-2 M ammonium phosphate.

Solid barium acetate is added slowly to this mixture.

A. What is the formula of the substance that precipitates first?

formula =______ B. What is the concentration of barium ion when this precipitation first begins?

[Ba2+] =__________ M

the concentration of barium ion when **precipitation** begins is approximately 3x =

3(7.93 × 10^-9 M) = 2.38 × 10^-8 M.

Hence, the concentration of barium ion when precipitation begins is approximately 2.38 × 10^-8 M.

To determine which **substance precipitates** first and the concentration of barium ion when precipitation begins, we need to consider the solubility product (Ksp) of the possible precipitation reactions.

The possible precipitation reactions are:

Ba(CrO4)2(s) ⇌ Ba2+(aq) + CrO42-(aq) Ksp1 = [Ba2+][CrO42-]^2

Ba3(PO4)2(s) ⇌ 3Ba2+(aq) + 2PO43-(aq) Ksp2 = [Ba2+]^3[PO43-]^2

The substance that precipitates first is the one with the lower solubility product (Ksp) value. To determine the Ksp values, we need to look up the relevant values of the **solubility products**.

From the solubility product table, we find:

- Ksp1 for Ba(CrO4)2 is 1.17 × 10^-10

- Ksp2 for Ba3(PO4)2 is 1.34 × 10^-23

Comparing the Ksp values, we see that Ksp1 is much larger than Ksp2, indicating that Ba(CrO4)2 is more soluble than Ba3(PO4)2.

Therefore, the precipitate that forms first is Ba3(PO4)2(s).

To determine the **concentration** of barium ion when precipitation begins, we can use the Ksp2 expression and assume that x mol/L of Ba3(PO4)2(s) dissolves, forming 3x mol/L of Ba2+ and 2x mol/L of PO43-. Since the initial concentration of ammonium phosphate is 1.04×10^-2 M, which is much less than the initial concentration of potassium chromate (1.49×10^-2 M), we can assume that all of the phosphate ions come from the ammonium phosphate and ignore the small contribution from the autoionization of water.

Using the Ksp2 expression and the concentrations of PO43- and Ba2+, we get:

Ksp2 = [Ba2+]^3[PO43-]^2

1.34 × 10^-23 = (3x)^3(2x)^2

Solving for x, we get:

x = 7.93 × 10^-9 M

Therefore, the concentration of barium ion when precipitation begins is approximately 3x =

3(7.93 × 10^-9 M) = 2.38 × 10^-8 M.

Hence, the concentration of barium ion when precipitation begins is approximately 2.38 × 10^-8 M.

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9. An unknown gas has a volume of 200L at 5 atm and -140Â°C. What is its volume at STP?

10. A Los Angeles class nuclear sub has an internal volume of eleven million liter at a

pressure of 1. 250 atm. If a crewman were to open one of the hatches to the outside

ocean while it was underwater (pressure of 15. 75 atm), what would be the new volume

of the air inside?

11. A man heats a balloon in the oven (Why?. Who knows?. It is a crazy world we live in).

If the balloon initially has a volume of 0. 40 L and a temperature of 20 Â°C, what is its

volume after he heats it to 250 Â°C?

Mixed Gas Laws

12. A gas has a pressure of 1. 26 atm and occupies a volume of 7. 40 L. If the gas is

compressed to a volume of 2. 93 L, what is its new pressure?

13. People who are angry sometimes say that they feel as if they'll explode. If a calm

person with a lung capacity of 3. 5 liters and a body temperature of 36 Â°C gets angry,

what is the volume of their lungs if their temperature rises to 39 Â°C. Do you think they

will really explode?

9. Using the** combined gas law**, the volume of the gas at STP can be calculated as 112.2 L. This equation takes into account the initial pressure, temperature, and volume, as well as the new pressure and temperature at STP.

10. Applying **Boyle's law**, the new volume of the air inside the submarine would be approximately 87,873.2 L. This is calculated by multiplying the initial volume and pressure, and dividing by the new pressure.

11. Using the combined gas law, the new volume of the balloon can be calculated as 0.98 L. This equation takes into account the initial temperature, volume, and pressure, as well as the new temperature.

12. Using Boyle's law, the new pressure of the gas can be calculated as 3.25 atm. This equation takes into account the initial pressure and volume, as well as the new volume.

13. Using **Charles' law**, the new volume of the person's lungs can be calculated as 3.8 L. This equation takes into account the initial lung capacity and temperature, as well as the new temperature.

It is highly unlikely that a person would actually explode from anger, as the body has mechanisms in place to regulate pressure and prevent such an event.

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If 32.0 g of hcl is to be diluted to make a 4.80 m solution, how much water should be added? question 7 options: 0.18 l 0.92 l 6.7 l 18 l

To answer this question, we need to use the equation for molarity, which is:**Molarity** = moles of solute / volume of solution in liters

We can rearrange this equation to solve for the volume of solution:

Volume of solution = moles of solute / molarity

First, we need to calculate the number of **moles** of HCl in 32.0 g. The molar mass of HCl is 36.5 g/mol, so:

32.0 g / 36.5 g/mol = 0.8767 mol HCl

Next, we need to calculate the **volume **of solution needed to make a 4.80 m solution. Using the equation above:

Volume of solution = 0.8767 mol / 4.80 mol/L = 0.1826 L or 182.6 mL

Finally, we need to calculate how much water needs to be added. We started with 32.0 g of HCl and added water to make a total volume of 182.6 mL. The volume of water added is therefore:

Volume of** water added** = 182.6 mL - 32.0 g / 1 g/mL = 150.6 mL

Converting to liters:

Volume of water added = 150.6 mL / 1000 mL/L = 0.1506 L

Therefore, the answer is 0.18 L of **water s**hould be added to 32.0 g of HCl to make a 4.80 m solution.

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do avalanchers play a large part in shaping the Earth's surface?

**Answer:**

yes

**Explanation:**

yes, avalanches a big part in the shaping of the earths surface.

**Yes, avalanches can play a significant role in shaping the Earth's surface, particularly in mountainous areas.**

The movements of snow, ice, and debris down a slope known as avalanches can significantly impact the Earth's surface, especially in mountainous regions. These natural occurrences can cause various landscape changes, erosion, and deposition.

When 200. Ml of 2. 0 m naoh(aq) is added to 500. Ml of 1. 0 m hcl(aq), the ph of the resulting mixture is closest to

The **pH** of the resulting mixture is closest to 2.48, which is in the **acidic** range.

The **reaction** between HCl and NaOH produces water and NaCl:

HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H₂O

Moles of HCl = 1.0 mol/L × 0.5 L = 0.5 moles

Moles of NaOH = 2.0 mol/L × 0.2 L = 0.4 moles

NaOH is a limiting factor since it has fewer moles than HCl.

Excess H⁺ ions = 0.5 moles - 0.4 moles = 0.1 moles

Excess OH⁻ ions = 0.4 moles

To calculate the **pH** of the solution, we need to know the concentration of excess H⁺ or OH⁻ ions. Since we know the amount of excess H⁺ and OH⁻ ions, we can calculate their concentrations using the volume of the solution.

The total volume of the solution is 200 mL + 500 mL = 0.7 L

The **concentration** of excess H+ ions is:

[H⁺] = 0.1 moles ÷ 0.7 L = 0.143 mol/L

The concentration of excess OH- ions is:

[OH⁻] = 0.4 moles ÷ 0.7 L = 0.571 mol/L

Since the concentration of OH⁻ ions is higher than the concentration of H⁺ ions, the **solution** is basic. The pH can be calculated using the equation:

pH = 14 - pOH

pOH = -log[OH⁻]

pOH = -log(0.571)

pOH = 0.242

Thus, pH = 14 - 0.242 = 13.76

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Students in Mr. Clark’s science class were trying to explain why we see the different phases of the moon. Which student’s explanation is correct?

A.

Student A explained that we see the different phases because the moon revolves around the earth.

B.

Student C explained that we see the different phases because the moon revolves around the sun.

C.

Student B explained that we see the different phases because the moon is very large.

D.

Student D explained that we see the different phases because the moon is covered with many craters

The **phases **of the moon are a result of the relative positions of the **sun**, the earth, and the moon. Option A is correct.

As the moon orbits around the **earth**, the amount of sunlight that reflects off its surface changes, causing the different phases. When the moon is between the sun and the earth, we see a new moon. When the earth is between the sun and the **moon**, we see a full moon. When the moon is at a right angle to the earth and the sun, we see a quarter moon.

The size of the moon has no effect on the phases, as it appears to be the same size regardless of the phase. The number of craters on the moon is also unrelated to the phases. Therefore, Student A's explanation is the most accurate and supported by **scientific **evidence. Option A is correct.

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How many grams of ammonia are made if 23.5 grams of diatomic hydrogen reacts?

**Answer:** 134g NH3

**Explanation:**

Diatomic Hydrogen has a mass of 2.016g/mol

to find how many moles of H2 we have divide how much we have by the molar mass.

23.5g/2.016= 11.66 moles

the ratio between H2 moles and NH3 moles is 3 moles of H2 produce 2 moles of NH3 so we multiply using a 2/3 ratio to find how many moles of NH3 we have

11.66mol H2 x (2molNH3/3molH2) = 7.77 moles NH3

now we multiply the number of moles of NH3 by the molar mass of NH3 (17.3g/mol) to find how many grams of NH3 we have.

7.77 x 17.3g = 134.4g NH3 or using 3 sig figs 134g NH3

Determine which of the substrates will and will not react with naome in an sn2 reaction to form an appreciable amount of product.

The substrates that will react are CH₃CH₂CH₂Br and CH₃CH₂CH₂CH₂Br and (CH₃)₃CNH₂ and CH₃CH₂OH will not react with **naome **in an sn2 reaction to form an appreciable amount of product.

Based on the **Sn2 reaction mechanism**, substrates with good leaving groups and low steric hindrance are more likely to react with nucleophiles like NaOMe.

Therefore, the substrates CH₃CH₂Br, (CH₃)₂CHBr, CH₃CH₂I, and (CH₃)₃CBr are expected to react with NaOMe to form appreciable amounts of product. On the other hand, substrates with poor leaving groups or high **steric hindrance** are less likely to undergo Sn2 reactions.

Therefore, the substrates (CH₃)₃CNH₂ and CH₃CH₂OH are not expected to react with NaOMe to form appreciable amounts of product. Finally, CH₃CH₂CH₂Br and CH₃CH₂CH₂CH₂Br may react with NaOMe, but to a lesser extent due to their higher steric hindrance.

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Complete question :

Determine which of the substrates will and will not react with NaOMe in an Sy2 reaction to form an appreciable amount of product. Substrate will react Substrate will NOT react Answer Bank CH,CH.CH,BE (CH),CBE (CH), CHRE CH, CH,CH,NH, (CH),CCH,BE CH,CH.CH, OH

Ite

a city is considering different water purification methods for the water supply. which fact would help inform the city if cost was

a significant constraint? (1 point)

iter

reverse osmosis systems are more expensive because of the chlorine treatments

iten

olon exchange systems are more expensive because of the chlorine treatments

iten

o reverse osmosis systems are more expensive because of the use of filters that need replacement

iten

olon exchange systems are more expensive because of the use of filters that need replacement

item

iten

If cost is a significant constraint for Itea city in choosing a **water purification** method for their water supply, then the fact that ion exchange systems are more expensive because of the use of filters that need replacement would be important to consider.

While** reverse osmosis **systems are also more expensive, it is primarily due to the chlorine treatments, which may not be a significant factor for the city. Therefore, ion exchange systems may not be a cost-effective option in the long run due to the ongoing expenses of replacing filters.

This information can help inform the city's decision-making process and ensure that they choose a water purification method that meets their needs while also being **financially feasible**.

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A student starts with s 18. 0 M solution of H2SO4. How many ml would be required to produce 235 ml of a 1. 77 M H2SO4 solution?

To produce 235 mL of a 1.77 M **H₂SO₄ solution** from an 18.0 M H₂SO₄ solution, you would need 27.54 mL of the concentrated solution.

To find this, we can use the **dilution formula**: M₁V₁ = M₂V₂. Here, M₁ is the initial **concentration** (18.0 M), V₁ is the volume required, M₂ is the final concentration (1.77 M), and V₂ is the final volume (235 mL).

1. Rearrange the formula to solve for V₁: V₁ = (M₂V₂) / M₁

2. Plug in the given values: V₁ = (1.77 M × 235 mL) / 18.0 M

3. Calculate the result: V₁ = 27.54 mL

Therefore, you would need 27.54 mL of the 18.0 M H₂SO₄ solution to produce 235 mL of a 1.77 M H₂SO₄ solution.

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A boy kicks a ball with a force of 40 n. at exactly the same moment, a gust of wind blows in the opposite direction of the kick with a force of 40 n.what happened to the ball?

The ball would experience a **net force** of 0 N and would not move in either direction.

When the boy kicks the ball with a force of 40 N, he applies a force in one **direction.** At the same moment, a gust of wind blows in the opposite direction of the kick with a force of 40 N. These two forces act in opposite directions, and therefore cancel each other out.

According to **Newton's first law **of motion, an object at rest will remain at rest, and an object in motion will continue in motion in a straight line at a constant speed, unless acted upon by a net external force. In this case, the net force on the ball is 0 N, which means that the ball will not move in either direction.

This scenario highlights the importance of understanding net forces when analyzing the motion of objects. In the absence of a net force, the ball will not accelerate, and its velocity will remain **constant**.

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J. J. Thompson discovered the first subatomic particle, ________, by deflecting a

"cathode ray" beam with an electric field. Robert Millikan later determined that

particle's charge in his "oil drop" experiments.

A) the proton

B) the nucleus

C) the neutron

D) the electron

Robert Millikan later determined **electron's** charge in his "oil drop" experiments.

J.J. Thomson conducted experiments in the late 19th century where he used an electric field to deflect a beam of particles, known as a "cathode ray." These cathode rays were generated by applying a high voltage to a partially evacuated glass tube. Thomson observed that the beam was deflected towards the positive electrode, suggesting that the particles in the cathode ray had a negative charge. This led him to the discovery of the first **subatomic particle**, the **electron**.

Robert Millikan later conducted experiments to determine the charge of the electron. His famous "oil drop" experiments involved suspending tiny droplets of oil in an electric field and measuring the force required to keep them stationary. By measuring the charge on the oil droplets and the electric field strength, he was able to calculate the charge of the individual electrons that were present in the oil droplets. The discovery of the electron and its properties paved the way for future developments in particle physics and quantum mechanics. Today, we understand that **atoms **are made up of a nucleus composed of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons that orbit the nucleus in energy levels.

The conclusion is J. J. Thomson discovered the first subatomic particle, the electron, by deflecting a "cathode ray" beam with an electric field. Robert Millikan later determined that particle's charge in his "oil drop" experiments. The discovery of the electron was a crucial step in our understanding of the nature of matter and the structure of the universe.

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What physical property and reaction type are used by extraction as useful techniques to separate and purify mixtures of compounds?.

**Extraction** is a useful technique for separating and purifying mixtures of compounds based on differences in their physical properties and reaction types.

The physical property used in extraction is the** solubility** of a compound in a particular solvent. If a compound is more soluble in one solvent than another, it can be selectively extracted and separated from the mixture.

For example, if a mixture contains both** water-soluble** and oil-soluble compounds, the mixture can be extracted with water to separate the water-soluble compounds, and then extracted with an organic solvent to separate the oil-soluble compounds.

The reaction type used in extraction is often **acid-base chemistry**. If a mixture contains both acidic and basic compounds, they can be selectively extracted by adjusting the pH of the solvent.

For example, if a mixture contains both an acidic carboxylic acid and a basic amine, the mixture can be extracted with a basic solvent to selectively extract the amine, and then extracted with an acidic solvent to selectively extract the carboxylic acid.

Overall, extraction is a **powerful technique** for separating and purifying mixtures of compounds, and its effectiveness depends on the physical properties and reaction types of the compounds in the mixture.

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Can acids neutralize bases?

**Answer:**

yes acid can nuetralize bases

**Answer:**

Yes!

**Explanation:**

Strong Acids neutralize Strong bases.

When they react, water is formed. Whatever ions are left over, they become salt.

There must be an equal moles of strong acid and strong base.

QUICKLY PLEASE: What is true about 1. 0 mol Ca and 1. 0 mol Mg? (3 points)

Both 1.0 mol of calcium (Ca) and 1.0 mol of magnesium (Mg) contain the same number of atoms (**Avogadro's number**, 6.022 x 10²³ atoms), but they differ in mass and **chemical properties**.

In order to compare 1.0 mol Ca and 1.0 mol Mg, we must first understand the concept of a mole. A mole is a unit of measurement that represents 6.022 x 10²³ particles (atoms, molecules, ions, etc.). This number, known as Avogadro's number, allows us to compare amounts of different substances.

Although 1.0 mol Ca and 1.0 mol Mg both contain the same number of atoms, their **masses** are different. The molar mass of Ca is 40.08 g/mol, while the molar mass of Mg is 24.31 g/mol.

Therefore, 1.0 mol Ca has a mass of 40.08 g, and 1.0 mol Mg has a mass of 24.31 g. Additionally, Ca and Mg are both alkaline earth metals but possess different chemical properties, such as reactivity and **electron configurations**.

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How many grams of steam are produced when 675 grams of oxygen gas combust?

2c8h18 (1) + 2502 (g) --> 16co2 (g) + 18h20 (g) (balanced)

Based on the balanced chemical equation provided, the combustion of 675 grams of** oxygen** gas (O₂) will produce 275.1 grams of water (H₂O) in the form of **steam**. Therefore, 275.1 grams of steam are produced when 675 grams of oxygen gas combust.

To determine how many **grams** of steam are produced when 675 grams of oxygen gas combust, we'll use the balanced equation you provided: 2C₈H₁₈ (l) + 25O₂ (g) --> 16CO₂ (g) + 18H₂O (g).

Step 1: Calculate the molar mass of O₂ and H₂O.

O₂: 16.00 g/mol * 2 = 32.00 g/mol

H₂O: (1.01 g/mol * 2) + 16.00 g/mol = 18.02 g/mol

Step 2: Calculate the moles of **oxygen** (O₂) in the 675 grams of oxygen gas.

moles of O₂ = 675 g / 32.00 g/mol = 21.09375 mol

Step 3: Use the stoichiometry from the balanced equation to find the moles of H₂O (steam) produced.

(18 mol H₂O / 25 mol O2) * 21.09375 mol O₂ = 15.271125 mol H2O

Step 4: Convert moles of H₂O to grams.

grams of H₂O = 15.271125 mol * 18.02 g/mol = 275.097895 g

So, approximately 275.1 grams of steam are produced when 675 grams of oxygen gas **combust.**

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If you had a 32 gram sample of C-14 today, how much would remain in 10,470 years? Remember, the half-life is 5370 years

If we had a 32-gram **sample** of C-14 today, there would be 4 grams of C-14 remaining in 10,470 years.

The **half-life** of C-14 is 5370 years, which means that in 5370 years, half of the original sample of C-14 would decay. After another 5370 years, half of what remains would decay, and so on.

This can be modeled by the equation:

[tex]N = N_0(1/2)^{(t/T)[/tex]

Where:

N is the amount of C-14 remaining after time t

N₀ is the initial **amount **of C-14

T is the half-life of C-14

Using the given information, we can substitute N₀ = 32 g, T = 5370 years, and t = 10,470 years into the equation to find N:

[tex]N = 32 g \cdot (1/2)^{(\frac{10,470 years}{5370 years})[/tex]

N = 4 g

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A container has 0.182 mol of CO₂ gas at STP. How many liters does the gas take up?

**Answer:**

4.08 L

**Explanation:**

**At standard temperature and pressure, a mole of any gas equals 22.4 L. **

We have 0.182 mol of CO₂ gas. We know that every mole of gas is 22.4 L, so

[tex]0.182mol*\frac{22.4L}{1mol} =4.08L[/tex]

⇒ 4.08 L of CO₂ is the answer

SI Unit: Volume = 4.133 L of carbon dioxide

Non-SI Unit: Volume = 4.079 L carbon dioxide

At **STP conditions (Standard Temperature and Pressure)**, which is conditions at 100 kPa and at 0°C or 273.15 K, it is a given that the **volume of 1 mole of ideal gas** is 22.71 L.

[tex]\large \textsf{$\therefore$ if 1 mol of CO$_2$ = 22.71 L}\\\\\large \textsf{hence, 0.182 $\times$ 1 mol of CO$_2$ = 22.71 $\times$ 0.182}\\\\\large \textsf{$\implies$ \boxed{\boxed{$volume = 4.133 L of CO$_2}}}[/tex]

**Note: ***The value used for pressure above, 100 kPa (kilopascals), is a standard SI unit (International System of Units), used by most countries around the world. *

*However, another commonly used value for pressure (though not the preferred SI unit), is 1 atm (atmospheric pressure), which is equivalent to 101.325 kPa. *

*Using this value, the volume of 1 mole of ideal gas at STP is then 22.41 L. Solving this:*

[tex]\large \textsf{if 1 mol of CO$_2$ = 22.41 L}\\\\\large \textsf{$\therefore$ 0.182 $\times$ 1 mol of CO$_2$ = 22.41 $\times$ 0.182}\\\\\large \textsf{$\implies$ \boxed{\boxed{$volume = 4.079 L CO$_2}}}[/tex]

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1: calculate the ph of a 0.25m solution of h3o+

2: calculate the ph of a 6.3x10-8m solution of h3o+

3: look at your answer for 4 and 5 which one is a base?

4: look at 4 and 5 which one is a strong acid

please show your work

The pH of a 6.3 x [tex]10^{-8[/tex]M solution of H₃O+ is approximately 7.20.

A 0.25 M solution of H₃O+ is not a **strong acid,** since it is not a single acid that completely dissociates in water.

A 6.3 x [tex]10^{-8[/tex] M solution of H₃O+ is not a strong acid, since it is a very weak acid with a very low concentration of H₃O+ ions.

The **pH **of a 0.25 M solution of H₃O+ can be calculated using the formula:

pH = -log[H₃O+]

where [H₃O+] is the concentration of H₃O+ ions in** moles **per liter (M).

In this case, [H3O+] = 0.25 M,

pH = -log(0.25) = 0.602

Therefore, the pH of a 0.25 M solution of H₃O+ is approximately 0.602.

The pH of a 6.3 x [tex]10^{-8[/tex] M solution of H₃O+ can be calculated using the same **formula:**

pH = -log[H₃O+]

In this case, [H₃O+] = 6.3 x [tex]10^{-8[/tex]M, so we have:

pH = -log(6.3 x [tex]10^{-8[/tex]) = 7.20

Therefore, the pH of a 6.3 x [tex]10^{-8[/tex] M solution of H₃O+ is approximately 7.20.

There is no information given for question 3.

A **strong acid** is an acid that completely dissociates in water to produce H₃O+ ions. The most common example of a strong acid is hydrochloric acid (HCl).

Looking at the given solutions:

A 0.25 M solution of H₃O+ is not a strong acid, since it is not a single acid that completely dissociates in **water.**

A 6.3 x [tex]10^{-8[/tex] M solution of H₃O+ is not a strong acid, since it is a very weak acid with a very low concentration of H₃O+ ions.

Therefore, neither of the given **solutions **is a strong acid.

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H2 + Br2 → 2HBr. How many liters of hydrogen gas are needed to react with 9.0 g of bromine?

We need 1.26 liters of **hydrogen** gas to react with 9.0 g of **bromine**.

To solve this problem, we need to use the balanced **chemical equation **for the reaction between hydrogen gas (H₂) and bromine (Br₂):

[tex]H_2 + Br_2 - > 2HBr[/tex]

According to the **stoichiometry** of this equation, one mole of Br₂ reacts with one mole of H₂ to produce two moles of HBr. Therefore, we need to determine the number of moles of Br₂ in 9.0 g, and then use the mole ratio to find the number of moles of H₂ required.

Finally, we can convert the number of **moles** of H₂ to liters using the ideal gas law.

First, we need to calculate the number of moles of Br₂ in 9.0 g:

The **molar mass** of Br₂ is 2(79.90 g/mol) = 159.80 g/mol

The number of moles of Br₂ in 9.0 g is:

9.0 g / 159.80 g/mol = 0.0563 mol Br₂

Next, we use the mole ratio from the balanced equation to find the number of moles of H₂ required:

According to the balanced equation, one mole of Br₂ reacts with one mole of H₂, so we need 0.0563 moles of H₂.

Finally, we can use the **ideal gas law** to convert the number of moles of H₂ to liters:

The ideal gas law is PV = nRT, where P is the pressure, V is the volume, n is the number of moles, R is the ideal gas constant, and T is the temperature.

We can assume standard **temperature** and pressure (STP), which is 0°C (273.15 K) and 1 atm.

At STP, one mole of an ideal gas occupies 22.4 L.

Therefore, the volume of H2 required is:

V = (0.0563 mol) x (22.4 L/mol) = 1.26 L

Therefore, we need 1.26 liters of **hydrogen** gas to react with 9.0 g of bromine.

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A student finds the mass and volume of four mystery liquids. The data is provided

The student's task is to determine the density of the four** mystery liquids **using the mass and **volume measurements.**

Density is a** physical property** that describes the amount of mass per unit volume.

The formula for density i**s density = mass/volume**. Once the density of each liquid is determined, the student can compare it to known densities of different substances to identify the liquid.

This information can be useful in various fields such as chemistry, pharmacology, and** environmental science**.

The student may also use this data to calculate other properties of the liquids such as **viscosity**, surface tension, and boiling point. Overall, measuring mass and volume is a fundamental method in **scientific research and analysis.**

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